How I play miniatures with a 6 year old

My recent tweets about Warhammer with my son Adam have brought in a few questions, mostly: “How do you play that incredibly complicated game with a 6 year old?” Good question, that.  I can’t usually remember the Warhammer rules, so how am I expecting him to be able to get them.

The answer was a simple but balanced set of rules that I came up with merging some basic ideas from a lot of miniatures games.  I thought I would codify them here in case anyone else wants to try them with their kids.

Remember, this is VERY SIMPLE, so there is a lot of room for adjudication. A hard core gamer would find this very boring. Adam loves it, though.


Tourna is a turn based miniatures game for two to four players.


Tourna is played with miniatures and dice.  Any miniatures can be used, including non-traditional figures like Legos or plastic animals. As long as they can be isolated (for instance, a lot of figures molded to a common base won’t work), then grouped into units, they will work.

At its core, Tourma is about building armies based on an agreed number of ‘dice’ in total.  Each individual miniature, or “figure”, is assigned a certain number of dice, which represents both that figure’s attack and defense value. If both sides have the same number of dice on their side, the game is balanced and may commence.


Tourna is best played on a flat clean surface like the dining room table.  After deciding on a source for miniatures, dice values need to be assigned.

Generally, individual figures are 1 dice, and generals are 2 dice.  Vehicles or machinery are 2 or 4 dice.  For instance:

Bill is playing dinosaurs.  He has 16 basic figures and 2 generals in two ‘units’, or groups that move together. His side totals 20 dice, because 16x1 = 16 and 2x2 = 4, and 16+4 = 20.

Adam is playing Legos.  He has a tank, which we decide is worth 4 dice.  Beyond that, he has 8 mounted figures with a general (total 10 dice) and 6 gunners. 4+10+6 = 20.  The sides are even, and play can begin.

Simple game setup using Brettonians from Warhammer

Units stay together through the game, and can either move or battle.

Units may be designated as ‘shooters’ but they have a harder to-hit and damage roll. (See ‘Battle’)


Movement is measured in inches.  Distance can be scaled to your environment, and decided based on the figures you have available. 

A good starting point is to allow shooters to move 2 inches per turn, footmen to move 4 inches per turn, and mounted (vehicle or horse) to move 8 inches per turn.

Units are allowed one free reformation per turn.  They can rotate in place, or change formation either before or after they move.

Mounted units can ‘charge’ in exception to the ‘move or battle’ rule.  If the opposing unit is within range of the mounted unit’s movement, the mounted unit can elect to move to base to base contact, and then melee.


Battle in Tourna is restricted to melee and shooting.  Decide if each unit contains shooters at setup.


Units in base to base contact may melee.  All units except machines can melee, regardless if they are designated as a shooter.

The unit whose turn it is is attacking and the opposing unit is defending.  Attacking units may roll one six-sided die for each die of value they bring to the game.  Units roll to hit first, and if they hit then they roll for damage.  There is no special defense number for opposing units – only the attacker numbers matter.

Melee-only units hit on a roll of 3-4-5-6 on a 6 sided die.  They damage on a roll of 4-5-6.

Shooters (whether shooting or in melee) hit on a roll of 4-5-6 on a six sided die.  They damage on a roll of 5-6.

So, for instance, Bill’s unit of 8 Velicoraptors and one General is in base to base contact with Adam’s mounted unit.  The Velicoraptors are not shooters.  The General is worth two dice. Bill rolls 10 six sided dice for the 8 dinos and one general. 6 of the dice are 3 or higher, so he rerolls them for damage.  3 of them are 4 or higher, so Adam’s unit takes three dice of damage.  Bill can choose if that is 3 figures, or 1 figure and 1 (2 dice) general.


Shooting can only be accomplished by figured designated at Setup as shooters. They can shoot the entire length of the play area. There is no distance measurement.

Shooting is line-of-sight.  One member of the shooting unit must be able to see one member of the defending unit to be able to aim for it.  All members of the shooting unit must shoot at the same defending unit. Shooters cannot move and shoot in the same turn.

Shooters cannot shoot into a melee.

Shooting units hit on a 4-5-6 on a six sided die (shooting or melee) and damage on 5-6.

So, for instance, during Adam’s turn he decides to shoot the one of Bill’s units of dinos that isn’t in melee with the mounted unit. He has 6 Lego gunners, and can draw an unobstructed line of sight from one of the gunner figures to one of the target dino figures.  He rolls six dice for the to-hit, and gets two dice at 4 or above.  He rerolls those two dice and rolls one 6, so does one die of damage to the dino unit.  He can either remove one of the figured from the unit, or reduce the general to a one die figure.

Machines, terrain and whatnot

Machines with shooting capability can shoot based on the number of dice they are.  They hit like shooters – 4-5-6 to-hit and 5-6- to damage.  They can only shoot at one unit at a time.  Machines have no melee capability.

Machines without shooting capability are treated like terrain. Shooters can’t shoot through terrain. There is no bonus for cover. Terrain and machines block line-of-sight.


The game is over when one player is left with figures still in the game.  That player is the winner.

Trend Micro now rates as a 'safe site'

I was at a client location recently, and needed to look up some documentation on Backtrack Linux.  For those that aren't familiar, Backtrack is a penetration testing tool, used by security researchers to do a myriad of security tests on website, networks and people. The client uses Trend Micro's Site Safety Center for outgoing requests, and I was suprised and disapointed to find out that Trend had Backtrack's URL listed as 'Dangerous' in the category of 'Hacking'.

Security tools can be used for hacking, just like baseball bats can be used to beat people up. But you don't need a license to buy a baseball bat, and Trend shouldn't be protecting people from tools that could be used for nefarious means. Visual Studio can be a hacking tool; in fact I might argue that it is more powerful and easier to use for hacking in some ways than Backtrack!

However, I clicked the 'This link is miscategorized' link, and filled out the form, explaining that Backtrack is a security tool. I thought that I was just making my case, but nothing would come of it.  Needless to say, I was shocked when I got the following email the next morning:

New Safety Rating
(originally rated as "Dangerous" by Trend Micro)
New Content Type
(originally categorized as "Hacking" by Trend Micro)
Computers / Internet

So there you have it - Trend does listen. I think it is worth keeping companies like Trend apprised of miscategorizations like this. Trying to keep security tools under the wraps of obsecurity 'for our own protection' is a lot like keeping the tricks of lockpicking a secret, and everyone knows how I feel about that!


Pyramath–the first fun math game I’ve seen in years.


I’ve posted about games and education before.  This is about an actual educational game – PyraMath by I See Cards.  This is a small collaboration of educators who designed, developed and produced a series of games for teaching math at the primary education level.  They were nice enough to send Gabrielle and I a copy to use when homeschooling Adam, and we both really like the game.

The premise is simple – starting with a played series of 7 cards, build a pyramid in one of two directions by playing a card that is the sum or difference of the two cards it is sitting on.  If you draw a card you can play, you can draw another card.  Play continues until you cannot play any more, and then you discard the drawn card and play passes to the other player.

The resident kindergartner and I played tonight as part of the evening school I do sometimes to keep in touch with his homeschool efforts.  Gabrielle does 99% of the work, and I like to stay in touch so I do the assessments, have him read to me and play games.


Adam loved the game, and handled the math well.  Because you have to opportunity to play on the six and 9ninecard (for an example pair) until you draw a five or a three, you keep running the arithmetic over in your head.  “nine plus six is 15 and nine minus six is three but I have an eight so not there…” Adam is pretty good at arithmetic, thanks to Bakugan, but this was a very good repetitive resource, with a very visible ‘winning’ position.

If you have a primary schooler and need math drills, put away the flash cards and play PyraMath.  Also look at their other games, FracTazmic, Prime Bomb and I See Cards.  Much thanks to Linda for the demo copy – I’ll be buying more!

The Case for Modeling Part 2

The regular readers of this blog know that my database modeling book was cancelled when Microsoft pulled the rug out from under M and the repository. I did a lot of good writing about modeling in general, so I wanted to put some of it up here on the blog, since the cancellation is official now. This is the second part of Chapter 1.

Why modeling?

Much software is designed on napkins. A story, a mockup, a model is really all that you need to design how a piece of software works.

This book isn’t about user stories or screen mockups. It is about models, and modeling models. It is one part of the trifecta of software design, and it is a very important part.

What is a model? When you say model to my son, he thinks Legos. That’s not far from the truth. A model is the whole of the component parts that make up software. In the example in Chapter one, the model consisted of trucks, boxes, and the relationship between the two.

The further you get into the so called ‘enterprise’ world (meaning really really big software) the more having a consistent model makes it possible to design intelligent software. This is because a good model brings consistent terminology, an abstraction of ideas and an understandable message to the party.

Creation of a consistent terminology

Working on a model makes you decide what to call things in your domain. In the example in Chapter 1, Boxes could be called Containers. They aren’t. They are called Boxes.

Purists will say that it isn’t just the act of deciding what to call things that matters, but instead the decisions that are made. I disagree on matters of principle here. The simple act of deciding to call something a box and not a container is important. Discussion on what a container is matters. Later on, might you have a bucket? Should boxes and buckets both be containers?

This conversation is frustrating but important. This is the selection of nouns in your new language, and nouns matter. They participate in a common language for your business, both in everyday discussion and in software development

Language and software design

They are called programming ‘languages’ for a reason. Spoken languages have nouns and verbs, as do programming languages. The difference is that precision matters a lot more in programming languages, so the ‘dictionary’ of nouns needs to be exactly accurate.

In programming languages, you define your nouns and verbs. Nouns are class instances, and verbs are methods. In a language like Visual Basic, you define the members of the language as you go:

Public Class Box

Public String Destination

End Class

The system has a concept of a box, and the box has a concept of a destination. We didn’t call the box a container, we called it a box. The box has a destination. This is where the box is going. We didn’t call it an endpoint. An endpoint might mean something else.

Verbs work the same way. You might be able to route a box, for instance.

Public Class Box

Public Destination As String

Public Function Route() As Boolean

Return True

End Function

End Class

Now the Box knows a verb – you can route a box. It is an action word – something you can do. We are literally building a new language here – the hip term is a Domain Specific Language, or DSL. It is not a general language. It is specific to our needs.

There is a problem here, though. The Visual Basic code is something that is only used by the developers. Left to their own devices, programmers will come up with the language to describe your business all on their own, and then it won’t be a common language, used by the business and the IT staff.

The key is in a common language

The reason that domain languages are important to modeling is that the software comes out a lot better if both the business users and the software developers use the same words. I probably don’t even have to mention this, because most all of the fine readers of this book have had that conversation:

“But that process only occurs if the router has that one form.”

“Which form?”

“Oh, I don’t know. That one form with the routing information. “

“Which routing information?”

“I’m not sure. It’s a little different every time.”

A common language mitigates this conversation, because they know to say “destination” and not “that information that is needed for the route.” Things have a name. Those names reduce confusion, and cause better software development.

Description of ideas in an abstraction

Creation of a model provides an abstract space to work with the ideas in the system. The architect and the business analyst don’t have to depend on concrete examples with exceptions left and right to design the software, they can work in generalities.

Boxes can be routed, for example. The development team doesn’t have to deal with the fact that Box ABC123 went to Cleveland, and Box DEF456 went to Cincinnati. The exceptions in specific cases are important, and need to be modeled in their own right, but they don’t need to be in the general abstraction that is used to talk about the system in at the 1,000 foot view.

Making models understandable

Abstraction is important when talking to users. To define user stories, the business analyst needs to talk to users all along the process tree. Most users don’t have visibility into the whole process. The receiving guy doesn’t know how Box ABS123 got to Cleveland, but he probably understands that the box was routed. Even if he doesn’t, this idea can be explained, because it is understandable.

Development teams get entrenched in detail. This detail is a necessary as the software gets developed. With an understandable model, though, there is always somewhere to go when you need to return to ‘home base’ and cover the big picture again.

Images versus text

Usually, architects develop diagrams to show models, like Figure 1-4. This is fine, but it gets to be far to complex after the details is added. Few diagrams can be easily searched, organized or simplified. Since we are looking for an abstraction, simplicity is king.

Figure 1-4: A model diagram

An option for a model is to eschew the boxes and use text. Models developed in text can be more easily simplified, and are much more searchable.

Text has a lot of benefits when you are creating an abstraction. First, the viewer doesn’t get tied up by the lines. Often, relationships between items (represented by the lines) are far too complex to make a readable diagram. If you have a simple list of the items that are related, you can just read them rather than tracing them.

The other benefit of using text for the abstraction is that there are fewer blocks to broadening the abstraction. When you realize that the box actually has a relationship with a product, you can just add it, rather than finding the product box on the other side of the page and finding a place for the line.

The conversation between the architect and the developer

The third consideration of creating an abstraction is the conversation amongst the development team members. The problem domain is rarely known when a group of developers get together to solve a particular business problem. Usually a new feature is just that – new – and the terminology being used is foreign to all but the business people directly involved with the process.

Use of a model mitigates this issue by firming up the terminology right from the start. If all of the entities in the business domain are defined and named, the conversation can revolve around the abstraction rather than examples. Even if the business unit itself uses mixed terminology for parts of the business domain, the model will sort out the communication between the architect and the developers.

This conversation is rarely called out, but it a very important conversation indeed. In small and large projects, the big picture is usually in the architects head rather than written down. The architect tries to pass the feature specific information to the developer, shielding them from the big picture. The developer tries to build a focused feature without insight into the overall system. Hilarity ensues.

The construction of a well-understood model provides an abstraction that the architects can use to give the developers context. Context is very important in system development. It doesn’t get in the way of the detailed development work that the programmers are completing, but it does lead to the discovery of contextual errors. Developers can find problems that relate to the system as a whole and apply the fix holistically, rather than just locally in their own feature.

Forming an understandable message

Creating a model allows for communication to be constructed that actually makes sense – especially as it relates to change. In order to communicate to the users and developers about a system, it is necessary to clearly describe the focus points of the system. To clearly describe anything about the system, it is necessary to start with a model.

To some extent, this pales with the need to provide the next guy with a path. Documentation of systems at the design level is notoriously bad. It is never up to date, practically never complete. It is confusing and passes on no knowledge of the business domain. It is useless. Software modeling – done correctly – mitigates this considerably.

Communicating to the user

The user is the person for whom the software is written. It is important that the development team can communicate on a few different levels. First, the user needs to be able to pass on business functionality to the architect. Second, the development team needs to confirm functionality after consuming it into the rest of the system.

During the initial communication about the system, the first thing that needs to be completed is a software model. The entities in the model will provide a base level of communication about the rest of the software. As functionality is discussed, there will be no need to focus on specifics because the model is specifically understood, not just generally assumed.

As important is the review of software designs. When user stories and mockups are reviewed with the user prior to commencing development, there is an understood terminology behind the discussion.

Communicating to the developer

The conversation between the architect and the developer was discussed above, but it bears mention again in this context. Creation of a context for the developer to create features makes a huge difference.

Context isn’t the only issue, however. Users communicate with developers too - especially in agile environments. Testers communicate with developers. Managers talk to everyone. Wouldn’t it be nice if everyone could just use the same terminology? I certainly think so.

The model brings an accurate terminology to the whole team, especially when communicating with the developer. As with the other examples in this section, the terminology reduces errors and the time it takes to communicate ideas.

Communicating to the future

Probably the largest afterthought in system documentation is the next guy. After all, the development staff isn’t being paid to make version two easier, are they? They are being paid to write version one. Nonetheless, having to edit a system is a necessity. Either the technology will move on and the update wizard will come calling, or the business rules will change.

The best way to improve on systems documentation is to remove the problem of updating it on a regular basis. A quality software model will assist with that because it will update as the code is updated. Working from a model removes some of the need for comprehensive documentation.

The business case

It is tough enough to explain to the CIO why you need to upgrade to TFS 2010. Describing just how important it is to totally change the development methodology of the organization even few years is really a problem.

In Software Language Engineering, Anneke Kleppe points out that we need to upgrade our development methodologies now because it’s the shiny new thing, but because we are doing more with less. Dijkstra (1972) called it the Software Crisis, and it is getting worse.

Taming complexity

Year after year, software developers are asked to tackly more complexity. Kleppe describes an environment where it used to be enough to have ‘Hello World’ show up on the screen. With the advent of GUI, consider all of the technologies that have to be mastered to get it on the screen - CSS, windowing, threading perhaps, markup, the list goes on.

What’s more the additional computing power has led to additional expectations of users. Now you are expected to deliver identity and membership, with ‘Hello Mr. Sempf’. Or even delivering more, localization and personalization, with ‘Good evening Mr. Sempf.’

Modeling software tames complexity. Part of the growing complexity of software is that no one person knows the whole system. It is a common story: features need to be added, but the UI guy is on vacation and now there are 24 business rules in the RDBMS.

Accurate models make for understandable software. While nothing makes software easy, not having an accurate model will certainly make it harder to understand.

Enhancing communication

From the project management perspective, nothing makes life better than communication. Weather agile or waterfall, trust and transparency are key. Both of these characteristics require communication. Communication is hard when half of the people at the table calls a container of items a ‘box’ and half of them call it a ‘carton.’

Modeling software enhances communication. Even if all that is done is the simple act of validating the common language it will make talking about the project a lot easier. I hope that you would take it even further than that.

As a project grows, features are added. To build a system of language that assures that the concepts in the application are referred to the same way throughout time. This is essential to good communication, and ease of updating.

With real software modeling, and a metadata implementation, the model follows the software. This means that throughout the lifecycle, the semantics are an intrinsic part of development through the domain specific languages provided in the model.

The Case For Modeling Part 1

The regular readers of this blog know that my database modeling book was cancelled when Microsoft pulled the rug out from under M and the repository. I did a lot of good writing about modeling in general, so I wanted to put some of it up here on the blog, since the cancellation is official now. This is the first part of Chapter 1.

While I don’t want to spend a lot of time on a history lesson, some background information is necessary to make sure we are all on the same page. If you, the reader, have spent a lot of time watching the world of modeling pass us all by, then you might be able to safely skip the rest of this chapter.

What led to this

The rest of you: stick around. It’s a story of wonder and woe. You’ll laugh, you’ll cry. It’s better than Cats. You’ll read it again and again.

In all seriousness, the path that led to Microsoft’s latest software modeling effort is very interesting. It cuts to the core of business computer programming - how do I model my business process in code?

It is a problem that developers have faced since we were punching tape. In the end, it is all zeros and ones, so how do we make tools that make it easier to describe moving a box from point A to point B? That’s the heart of software modeling.

To break it down, let’s start with a description of the actual problem we face - moving from the model to the code. Then we will inventory some of the tools that have been tried over the years - many of which have led to SQL Modeling. Finally, we’ll look over CASE and the 800 pound gorilla: UML.

A description of the problem

Imagine you are the new CIO of a distribution company. Your company, let’s call it M Logistics, has no software. Yes, that’s what I said. They have no software at all. They use this weird stuff made out of ground up trees. They call it paper. You call it inefficient.

You are going to need to get some software in there, and you are going to need to do it fast. There are no off-the-shelf solutions available (more on that later) so you are going to have to build it.

Get out the whiteboard. Starting with a design is the best way, most will admit. There are questions that need to be asked.

What goes into a distribution company, information wise? The truck shows up with boxes. You unload the boxes, sort then in different ways perhaps. Then you put them in different trucks and send them off to a store.

“Fair enough,” you might think. “We will start with a truck containing boxes.” The drawing probably looks like Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 The whiteboard - truck contains boxes.

Great! Good start. Over the next few hours you map out the rest of the relationships between objects in your scope - or your domain model - and the whiteboard will be filled with goodness.

Oh, but wait. You can’t ship the whiteboard to the central office, so you will probably need to make a document. A word processor for the text will solve that problem, and some diagramming software for the model, like Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2: The document - truck contains boxes

Nice work! Now you can package it up and send it to Central Office. All we have to do now is wait for approval.

Moving to code

The day has come and approval from Central Office has arrived (along with your new business cards, sweet!) It is time to start coding. Fire up Visual Studio, reference the carefully reviewed document, and start sketching out the domain model like the following listing.

namespace Warehouse
    public class Truck
        public Box Boxes { get; set; }
    public class Box

That’s a good start. We can work on the rest later. Now we all know that the C# class isn’t everything, we need a database to back it up. It is time to fire up the RDBMS of choice and model up a database. Depending on your tool, it should look like Figure 1-3

Figure 1-3: The database - trucks contain boxes

We are certainly getting somewhere. We have a domain model. We have a database. We … need some way to hook them together. Alright, enter your ORM of choice, or maybe roll up your sleeves and roll your own.

Eventually the decision is to use Entity Framework. Fine - still you have quite a few lines of code, mapping the database to the domain model:

  public partial class Truck : EntityObject
        public static Truck CreateTruck(global::System.Int32 id)
            Truck truck = new Truck();
            truck.Id = id;
            return truck;

        [EdmScalarPropertyAttribute(EntityKeyProperty=true, IsNullable=false)]
        public global::System.Int32 Id
                return _Id;
                if (_Id != value)
                    _Id = StructuralObject.SetValidValue(value);
        private global::System.Int32 _Id;
        partial void OnIdChanging(global::System.Int32 value);
        partial void OnIdChanged();
        [EdmRelationshipNavigationPropertyAttribute("Model1", "TruckBox", "Box")]
        public EntityCollection<Box> Boxes
                return ((IEntityWithRelationships)this).RelationshipManager.
GetRelatedCollection<Box>("Model1.TruckBox", "Box"); } set { if ((value != null)) { ((IEntityWithRelationships)this).RelationshipManager.
InitializeRelatedCollection<Box>("Model1.TruckBox", "Box", value); } } } }

And now, finally, we can get around to actually writing the software. That is a lot of steps. Something is rotten in Denmark, methinks.

The gap is wider than you think

There are two things that are clearly wrong here.

First, you had to concern yourself with object/relational mapping. Aren’t we past that? Isn’t the concept well enough understood that we don’t need to put the code in books anymore?

Second, you touched the basic model five times. That’s far too many. Why can’t we use the model we start with as the domain model, the database and the ORM?

Mapping code to models

The first of these problems, object / relational mapping or O/RM, has been solved many times. We saw above how it is a problem that has to be solved every single time we build a data driven piece of software.

The solutions range from open source products with a wide community following to expensive rarely used commercial products that solve very specific issues.

The core problem is that gap

The reason that there are so many different solutions is because of the range of that gap between the objects and the database. The example at M Logistics is a fairly straightforward one, but there are numerous more sophisticated examples.

  • In a many to many situation, should the ORM model the joining table? What if it has data associated with it?
  • What happens if there are several different databases?
  • Also, sometimes some of the data silos in an entity model aren’t databases at all.
  • We haven’t even talked about the pattern of the domain model. Repository? Lazy loading?

The more issues in an O/RM the more sophisticated the software doing the mapping must be. The more sophisticated the software is the fewer people will want to use it. This leads to fragmentation in the software market. It also leads to confused users.

Various solutions

There are all kinds of object / relational mappers out there. Eric Nelson has a great inventory in his entity framework talk, which points out the following items:

  • NHibernate - a rewrite of Hibernate, which is originally an open source Java tool. Well used and mature.
  • EntitySpaces - a commercial tool that moves a lot of SQL functionality into the C# code.
  • LLBLGenPro - another commercial tool that generates code for you to do the mapping.
  • DevForce - a newer O/RM mostly for the web space.
  • XPO - a DevExpress product, eXpress Persistant Objects. It is a complete abstraction layer.
  • Lightspeed - a Mindscape product that has a stunning visual interface.
  • Open Access - the Telerik entry that depends on convention to avoid reflection.

This list is just in the Microsoft development space, too. There are lots of O/RMs for Java and other platforms. NHibernate, in fact, is a port of Hibernate, the well-known Java O/RM.

Microsoft’s tries

One would imagine that since all of these products are developed to fix a weakness in the Microsoft development space that eventually Microsoft would step in and fix it themselves. Well, they have tried. In fact, they have been trying all along, but let’s just start with the .NET era.

Typed datasets were the first .NET implementation of an ORM back in 2002, and they are still pretty cool for small projects. They effectively represented an in-memory copy of the data that would be committed to the RDB on demand. They became unwieldy for large projects, though.

ObjectSpaces was going to be the ‘next big thing’ as part of .NET 1.1 and 2.0 but never saw the light of day. I am not sure what happened there. Maybe we can get the scoop sometime.

The Microsoft Business Framework was, I think part of what would be the Dynamics group and grew out of the SharePoint models. I think. Anyway, it doesn’t matter because it didn’t ship either.

Then there was WinFS. I you hadn’t heard about that I’ll tell you over a beer sometime. Never shipped.

Finally, in 2007, lambda calculus was added to the CLR and LINQ was introduced. LINQ did actually ship, and it is currently the best way to query a model of a database in your code for the whole Microsoft stack. This book isn’t about LINQ, but if you don’t know it you should learn it. It is a very powerful technology.

The nice thing about LINQ is that it is datasource agnostic – exactly what we needed. It can talk directly to a SQL Server database, yes, but it can also talk to another object model (like a normalized Data Access Layer) or an Entity Model built in EDMX.

So that is where we leave the history lesson on O/RM. The next significant move by Microsoft is SQL Modeling, which is the topic of the rest of the book. First, though, let’s talk about the second topic – modeling the software.

Modeling with CASE and the gorilla in the room

A lot of people have tried to solve the modeling problem too. Remember how the model got redone 5 times? Most people agree that that needs to get better.

The Unified Modeling Language

The 800 pound gorilla in the room is the UML. A gang of four people who have forgotten more about software design than I will ever know got together one day. They left their egos at the door and took their four separate design patterns and built this system for diagramming software.

This system is the Unified Modeling Language or UML, and it is the most complete, most comprehensive possible way to describe how a piece of software works. I can’t even do it justice here, so I will just direct you to Martin Fowler’s great books on the subject – especially UML Distilled. I don’t leave home without it.

But the UML has two problems. First, it isn’t code. Since it is so very comprehensive, it can be converted to code, but you have to completely fill out the model, which usually takes longer than just writing the code! (As an aside, I often write the domain model in the language of choice, and then convert it to the UML.)

The other problem with the UML is that it doesn’t inherently have any knowledge of the database. The project still has the O/RM problem from the last section. Though the UML is expressive enough to infer a schema, it is sometimes too expressive, and the schema is only as good as the tools.

Many tools have attempted to solve this, from the simple Microsoft Visio to the mighty IBM Rational Rose. None of them do it well, because that is not really what the UML is designed for – it is not an O/RM. You are forced to write yet another model, like the venerable Object Role Model, or even just an Entity Model, and then manually do the mapping.

There is clearly room for a simpler yet better modeling pattern here. We may have created a system in the UML that has become too unwieldy to use. Yet just writing on whiteboards prevents remote team access, and is tough to distribute for review.

<whatever> Driven Design

A current trend is to use part of the architectural patterns as the design medium. For instance, Test Driven Design, or TDD, is basically the use of unit tests to describe expected outcomes of user stories, and then code until the tests pass, and then refactor.

TDD is a great pattern, and I use it a lot. However, it is tough to review, and nigh impossible to generate documentation from for a formal document. It almost has to be used in conjunction with something else.

Another alternative is Design by Contract, sometimes called Contract Driven Design or CDD. It works well in large teams, can be used with TDD, and can generate the UML if you need it to. It has a steep learning curve though, and is often overkill for large projects.

There are a host of others; you probably already have your favorite. Few of them do the O/RM well, and most of them are too tough to use for 10,000 foot view types of modeling.

Especially for forms over data types of applications (which constitutes well over half of the projects we all develop) there needs to be a new solution. Somewhere there is a solution that is easy to learn, distribute, and review, and that translates well to code and the database. SQL Modeling is that solution.

Mustard Dip for Pretzels

1/2 Cup Dijon mustard

1/4 Cup Mayo

1/4 Cup Cheve (Softened in microwave)

2 green onions, chopped fine

1/2 tsp Celery Salt


Mix until smooth, eat with pretzels.

A week of neat security stuff

This week, I’ll be doing three neat security events, and you are invited!

Wednesday morning, I’ll be speaking at the Central Ohio ISSA about Windows Identity Foundation, OpenID and Claims Based Authentication. Details are here. This is the topic description:

“Escalation of privilege is based on a model of security that is driven by roles and groups for a given application. I am in the Administrator role, the Accounting group contains your username. What if instead you carried a token with a verifiable set of claims about your identity? One that is encrypted, requires no round trip to an authorization server, and can be coded against in a native API? Would that bring more security to our government and medical applications? Or is it just as full of holes as everything else? Join Bill in checking out Claims Based Security via Windows Identity Foundation, and see if it fixes problems or is the problem.”

That evening (wshew!) I’ll be giving a presentation on high-security locks at the Columbus Locksport International meeting at the Columbus Idea Foundry.  You can sign up here. Please RSVP if you are coming, because we need to plan for a crowd if we have one.  I’ll be covering security pins, and the idea behind sidebar locks.

Then, Friday, I’ll be at B-Sides Cleveland giving the WIF talk again.  It’s at the House of Blues, and I’ll be talking at 10AM.  The conference is sold out, though.  Too bad - it sounds like an awesome lineup, and I am just floored to be among them. Freaking ReL1K is speaking – he built the Social Engineer’s Toolkit for crying out loud. I’m truly honored.  I am looking forward to this.

CodeMash v2.0.1.1


Another CodeMash is in the books, and all kinds of new stuff was in the offing for me this year.  But first I would be remiss if I didn’t thank Jason Gilmore, Brian Prince and especially Jim Holmes (along with the rest of the board) for uncompromising management of simply the best conference on this topic.  Period. Not for the money, not for the constraints of space.  It is simply the best code-centric conference on the planet.

I owe a lot of people a lot of links and information on a lot of topics.

imageFirst and foremost, I was delighted to be asked to speak again, and was pleased to have Matthew Groves join me for a discussion on Monodroid.  We had 100 people join us for a look at how Monodroid came to be and what the future holds.

Then Matt took us for a tour of his excellent Stock Tracker application (shown left), converted from Windows Mobile.  There were a number of good points made all around, and generally a good time was had by all.

The Monodroid documentation contains nearly everything that you need to know to get programming.  The tutorials are the best starting point, and provide the templates for all of the major use cases. Matt’s application is on GitHub – please feel free to get it an mess around.  It’s a good app.  I’ll have BabyTrak up here in a couple of months.

imageThe Locksport openspace was a rousing success.  About 40 people were taught to pick, and about that many more stopped me in the halls and told me that they would like to have been there.  I was frankly astonished by the turnout, and would have brought 5 times as many picks if I would have known about the interest – all 15 of the sets I brought were sold.

For those looking for more information:

The Locksport International site has a lot of good links to publications and whatnot.  Deviant Ollem’s book, Practical Lock Picking, is excellent – he is the guy who wrote the presentation that I gave (twice). The best community is online at Lockpicking101, and they have an IRC channel too.  If you need to order picks, look at LockPickShop – Red does an awesome job.  The 14 piece set is on sale right now and is a great learners set!

imageFinally, if you are in the Columbus area please join us at the Columbus branch of Locksport International.  We have a Meetup group – just go sign up and you’ll get the locations for each meeting.  You can attend for free, but if you want a membership card and to participate in competitions, it’s $20 a year.

And last but not least, I got a ton of comments on the jam band.  Lots of questions too.  Yes, I was a professional musician for many years.  I taught at a lot of area band camps, like Upper Arlington and Teays Valley.  I played in a Dixieland band in London Ohio called the Lower London Street Dixieland Jazz Band and Chamber Music Society for nearly ten years. I haven’t played in quite a while, and I have to say it was a lot of fun.  Hope to do it again next year.

All in all, an awesome conference.  Again, I was a net producer of content rather than a consumer of content, and that’s OK.  I still learned a ton just by chatting with friends old and new, and picked up information about the hip new technologies that the cool kids are using by osmosis.

Hope to see everyone at DevLink!

SQL Server Developer Tools Part 1: Adding an existing project


I recently was needful of adding some instrumentation to the Dot Net Nuke code base, and decided to use the new SQL Server Developer Tools to load in the database as a project and manage it there.  I had written some internal documentation for the project while it was still under wraps, and was glad to see it so strong when it was released for public consumption.  I thought seeing how I used the application might give someone out there a hand.

Since we have an existing project, we have an existing database. Fortunately, SSDT has an app for that. You can add a new SQL Server Database Project, which will effectively take a snapshot of the database and expose it to Visual Studio as T-SQL Scripts. These are the scripts that will eventually make up the development base for the software

We will start by creating a new project. Right click on the Solution file and select New Project … The Project Selection dialog appears, and if you click Data, you get the template for the SSTP. Name the project and move forward.

clip_image002This project represents everything that is part of a database file in SQL Server. There is a properties folder in the project that will show you all of the database level properties – usually handled by SSMS. This is just one of many examples of SSDT bringing the DBA and developer closer together, as shown in the figure to the left. Operational properties such as the filegroup and transaction details are at least available for viewing by the developer and alterable locally. Permissions still hold, so you as a developer have to be set up to change these kinds of details to change the production system. At least you can alter them locally and see what works without a call to the DBA.

The original project is empty. In order to get the existing database into the project, an import needs to occur. Right click on the new project and then Import Objects and Settings. Select the local database and pass in the appropriate credentials. I selected the DotNetNuke database from my developer’s instance but you should select whatever you want to incorporate.

clip_image004The Import Database Schema Wizard has all of the options that define how you will interact with the database once it is in the project. I like the default settings, which define a folder for each schema, and a folder within for each database item type.

There is an option to import the SQL Server permission structure, but I find that most projects don’t use that. My DotNetNuke project uses the SQL Membership Provider, however, so there is a mapping between the login structure of the database and the Users table of the membership provider. For that reason, I do turn on Import Permissions.

Once the values are set, just follow the steps:

  1. Make a new connection
  2. Click Start
  3. Watch the magic happen
  4. Click Finish
  5. Let’s see what we have

What we have here is everything that the database has to offer, in T-SQL Scripts. This is important. Every change that is made can be included in a DAC, because there is source control and an understood level of alteration. Changes are known by the system, and go into a pot to turn over to operations, or to be reviewed by the DBAs. Changes are not made by altering the database anymore.


Taking a look at the DotNetNuke database project, you’ll see the main schema (dbo) broken into the familiar Tables, Views, sprocs and functions. The project also has scripts for three other database members – Scripts, Security and Storage.

Storage is just the database definition. In the case of this project, it is simply:

ALTER DATABASE [$(DatabaseName)]

ADD FILE (NAME = [DotNetNuke],

FILENAME = '$(DefaultDataPath)


SIZE = 9216 KB,


It’s part of the completeness, but not something that you will alter a lot. The Scripts directory is another that you’ll change once and forget about – it contains the pre and post build scripts for the deployment of the database. Every time you build and push to the actual database server, these scripts will be run.

The Security folder is fascinating. It contains all of the roles and related schemas, and the associated authorizations. If you have a project that secures database assets in the database management system, this could be awesome.

The meat is in the schema folder, called ‘dbo’ in the DNN example. This is where the scripts you would expect to see in a project like this are held, and where we will be doing the majority of our work. Each entity in the database is scripted separately here, and we can modify or add to our hearts content, and deploy separately.

Set up some new entities

The first ting needed for the instrumentation being added is a table for some timing data. Start by right clicking on the Tables folder and selecting ‘Add New …’. Notice the nice Visual Studio integration that shows asset types which can be added. Select a Table. Name the table ‘Instrumentation’ in the Add New Item dialog and click OK. There is a base template for a table; go ahead and change it for the new fields:

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Instrumentation]


InstrumentationId int NOT NULL IDENTITY (1, 1) PRIMARY KEY,

ClassName varchar(64) NOT NULL,

MemberName varchar(64) NOT NULL,

ElapsedSeconds bigint NULL,

Exception text null

There is a Commit button that is so tempting at this point, but it isn’t the button you want right now. Commit peeks at the declarative information in the script – effectively doing a pre-parse – and try and make appropriate changes to the target database. It is more or less like the Table Designer in SSMS at this point, using the references to concepts in the database to make decisions rather than just running the T-SQL as coded.

Click the Execute SQL button in the text window’s toolbar to run the CREATE TABLE procedure and save the table to the database defined in the project properties. (You can read more about that in the Deployment section below.) In this way, the database is effectively disposable. At any time, you can get a copy of the scripts from Team Foundation Server, and generate a whole new copy of the database, minus reference data. For right now, though, we are just adding this one table.

Great, that gives us a place to put the data. Next step is a way to get it there. Right click on the Stored Procedures folder and select Stored Procedure from the context menu. Just like the table above, Visual Studio will give a base template. I changed it to the code below:

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[AddInstrumentationEvent]

@ClassName varchar(64),

@MemberName varchar(64),

@ElapsedSeconds bigint = 0,

@Exception text = ''


INSERT INTO Instrumentation














clip_image007I need to make a quick shout out here for the IntelliSense. It’s expected I suppose, that this should support full IntelliSense integration but I was just shocked at how comfortable to use I personally found it. I do not care to write SQL code because it is so cumbersome. Having that modern development experience talked about in the introduction makes a big difference.

That’s all we got for new features – it’s a short paper after all. Clearly any entity that SQL Server supports can easily be added to the project, stored in source control, and managed like the rest of the application. What’s more, it can be tested and refactored like any other part of the application.

Red, green, refactor

clip_image009After further review, it was decided that Instrumentation wasn’t a good enough name for the table, since it doesn’t accurately represent what was actually put in the rows of the table. Instead, the name InstrumentationEvents is supposed to be used, so we need to rename the table.

clip_image011Right click on the table name in the CREATE statement of Instrumentation.sql and select Refactor -> Rename. Change the name to InstrumentationEvents and click Next. Notice, as shown in the figure to the left, that SSDT got it right. The preview is very helpful. It finds all of the consuming database members, and lets you determine which of them to apply the change to.. Even in the stored procedure, the pluralization is correct, changing AddInstrumentation to AddInstrumentationEvent rather than AddInstrumentationEvents. That trailing s might not seem like much to some people but it can make a big difference in a convention over configuration based system.

Rename isn’t the only refactoring available in SSDT, there are also T-SQL specific features. If you are working in DotNetNuke, open up the GetUsersByUserName.sql script in the Stored Procedures folder. It’s a little overdeveloped and has too much UI logic in it, but it works for this example.

Line 31 has a SELECT * on it, and frankly this procedure is too slow as it is. We don’t need to add a table scan. The refactor menu has an Expand Wildcards option, and I recommend its use here. Right click on the asterisk and select Refactor -> Expand Wildcards, then click on SELECT * in the treeview. The Preview Changes dialog now will show us how the sproc will look with the wildcard expanded, just like the figure to the right. Click Apply to have the changes applied to the procedure.

Don’t overlook the various features of the Visual Studio IDE that now can be used to manage the T-SQL code. For instance, consider that GetUserByUserName.sql file. Right click on the vw_Users token on line 10 and select Go To Definition to be taken to the View definition in the database project. The view doesn’t help us much, because we want to see the table in question. Scroll down in the view to the FROM statement and right click on Users and select Go To Definition again to see the Users table.

As expected, you can then right click on the Users table name and Find All References to see the 44 places that the Users table is used in the database project. The usefulness of this in a legacy environment can’t be overestimated. Finding your way around a project this easily, digging from the core code to the database and navigating using the built-in features will significantly reduce time spent in getting up to speed on existing applications.

clip_image013What’s more, code-level refactoring isn’t the only thing that the data modeling group is pushing for in SSDT. There is project-level refactoring available as well, which is a step in the right direction of whole-project management. Across-the-board changes to software code are something that Visual Studio already excels at, and SSDT is working toward providing the same kinds of features for database projects.

For instance, right click on the database project and select Refactor from that context menu. Aside from the wildcard expansion seen in the code-level refactoring, not the Rename Server/Database reference. It’s a whole-project way to change references that would be manages in configuration files for a C# project, but needs to be controlled with refactoring in T-SQL.

Refactoring is an important part of software development. Though it has been available in third party tools for a while having a standardized experience that is so tightly integrated with Visual Studio will make a big difference to the average developer. While unit testing integration with Visual Studio still isn’t in there for T-SQL it is still a step in the right direction toward that modern development experience we have been talking about.

Recipe: The Spanner


Bastard child of the Screwdriver and the Shirley Temple.

  • 1 shot Absolut Vodka
  • 1 shot Mandarin Orange Juice (just pour it right out of the jar or oranges)
  • 4 slices of Mandarin orange
  • Fill the glass with Sprite

Preferably put it in a Pleasure Island Jazz Company 8oz shot glass.



And yes, no ice.  Make sure the ingredients are cold.

Thanks to Matt Groves for the name.

Bill Sempf

Husband. Father. Pentester. Secure software composer. Brewer. Lockpicker. Ninja. Insurrectionist. Lumberjack. All words that have been used to describe me recently. I help people write more secure software.



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